New Sovietskiy 2K22-T Tunguska Anti-Aircraft Artillery:
The 2K22 was first developed in Nineteen-Seventy as a replacement for the previous air defense platforms. The guns of the previous weapon platform was armed with a 23 mm cannon and was not considered effective against NATO aircraft such as the A-10 Thunderbolt. Production started in Nineteen Seventy-Six and continued to be produced even after the Soviet Union collapsed although in much smaller numbers. In addition to being produced in Russia, the combat vehicle was exported to India. India operated a number of different Russian designs.
The vehicle combined two 30 mm 2A38M auto cannons and eight 9M311 missiles (NATO designation SA-19 Grison.) A total of 1,904 rounds for the 30 mm cannon were carried with a rate of fire of around 5,000 rounds per minute with both cannons combine. It has a range of 3,000 meters against air targets which extends to 4,000 meters against ground targets. Electronics allowed multiple vehicles to link fire control systems to a command and control platform.
An upgraded model was introduced in Two Thousand Three. This upgraded model was designated the Tunguska-M1. It most important feature included a much improved ability to engage low flying missiles and aircraft. The vehicle has a powerful tracking radar with a maximum range of thirty-eight kilometers. As well, it used a new chassis, the GM-5975 and similar chassis were used in a variety of different vehicles. Diesel powered, the vehicle has a 780 Horsepower V12 engine and a maximum road speed of sixty-five kilometers per hour and an operational range of five hundred kilometers.
When the Soviet government became communist once again, there was vast increase in military spending. Still, the new spending was not enough for replacing all military platforms and vehicles in service. As a result, there were times when they needed to refit vehicles already in service. While there were many disadvantaged of this approach, it is far cheaper than all new designs. As well, there were a number of generals and marshals who saw that this was politically expedient to support. The 2K22M1 was not produced in large numbers but it was decided that both solutions would be followed. The already existing vehicles were refitted while new vehicles were also built using the new materials.
The ones which were re-manufactured using new composite materials were designated 2K22-T1 while those which were new construction vehicles were designated 2K22-T2. India had bought relatively large numbers of the combat vehicle and decided to refit their existing vehicles and did not purchase large numbers of the new construction models. They had fallen on comparatively hard times and could not afford large number of new vehicles.
The biggest refit of the design was the refitting of the design with the new composite armors but new tracks made out of the new materials were part of the reconstruction. Otherwise, any of the new weapons which had been introduced would devastate the design. In addition, the weapons in the platform had new ammunition. In some cases, such as the missile launchers, they were refitted to be able to fire the new missiles which later became standard medium range type missiles.
The refitted versions were considered by most soldiers and officers to be of limited use due to the fact that they broke down far more frequently than the new built designs. Even the newly build vehicles were soon considered obsolete by most due to the fact of the comparatively limited radar range and due to comparatively slow speed. Most new tank designs were far faster than the 2KM22 design. As most diesel powered vehicles retired and repair parts became rare, there were more and more problems operating the vehicle.
It took quite a while for all of the refitted versions to be retired and remained in service until the late part of the Twenty-First Century. Some were scrapped, a few were put in reserves, while others were sold or given to allies. The new constructed vehicles remained in service but were used mostly in supporting roles due to the limitations in the design. As it was, there was never a true replacement for the design. Luckily, many of the new combat designs which entered service later in the century carried effective defenses against aircraft and missiles.
By the actual time of the Rifts, all of the 2K22M1 had long been retired
in Soviet service. While many were destroyed, many others survived the
coming of the magical storms which devastated much of the Earth. Many of
the new construction versions also survived. Some of both versions were
recovered by the New Sovietskiy which needed almost any combat vehicles
they could find. As well, a number of Warlord have found these vehicles
and mercenaries have found these vehicles as well. Since it can be found
outside of the old Soviet borders, they can be found in other hands as
well although mostly the refitted versions. Many consider the refitted
vehicles to be more trouble than they are worth although the new construction
version are better liked. Some vehicles have been refitted with new radar
systems and some have had the power system replaced by fusion reactors.
|Model Type:||2K22-T1||Upgraded Original Model (Added Composite Armors)|
|2K22-T2||New Composite Construction|
Vehicle Type: Self Propelled Anti-Aircraft Artillery (Tracked)
Crew: Four (Driver, 2 Weapon Operators, and Commander).
|M.D.C. By Location:||Refitted Version:||New Manufacture:|
| Tractor Treads (2):||40 each||60 each|
|57E6 Anti-Aircraft Radar (1, Folds Down):||40||60|
|30 mm 2A38M Auto-Cannons (2, Turret)td>25 each||35 each|
|9M113-M1 Medium Range Missile Tubes (8, Turret)||15 each||20 each|
|Multi-Option Jammers (2):||25||25|
| Headlights (2):||10 each||10 each|
|Reinforced Crew Compartment:||40||60|
| Main Body:||180||260|
 Depleting the M.D.C. of a tread will immobilize the tank until it is replaced. Replacing a tread will take 1D6x10 minutes by a trained crew (2 replacements are carried on board) or three times as long by the inexperienced. Changing the tread is only advisable when the vehicle is not under attack.
 These are small and difficult targets to strike, requiring the attacker to make a "called shot," but even then the attacker is -4 to strike.
 If all the M.D.C. of the main body is depleted, the vehicle is completely shut down and is unsalvageable.
Ground: Maximum speed on land is 40.4 mph (65 kph) on roads and 24.9 mph (40 kph) off road maximum. The vehicle is designed to traverse virtually all terrain and can climb at up to a 60% grade although at a much slower speed (About 10% of maximum road speed). It can also climb barriers and ford trenches. The vehicle can also handle side slopes of up to 30%.
Water Capabilities: Not Amphibious.
Maximum Range: 310.68 miles (500 km)
Height: 11.02 feet (3.36 meters) with radar folded down and 13.19 feet (4.02 meters) folded up
Width: 10.63 feet (3.24 meters)
Length: 26.02 feet (7.93 meters) for chassis
Weight: 37.48 tons (34 metric tons).
Power Source: Conventional, Diesel (V-46-4 turbocharged V-12 diesel with 780 HP)
Cargo Capacity: Minimal storage space in pilots compartment; about three feet (0.9 m) in side dimensions for extra clothing, weapons, and personal items. Four carbines and one hand-held missile launcher with four loads each are stored in a compartment in the crew compartment.
Black Market Cost: 2.8 million credits to build the 2K22-T1 and 3.8 million credits to built the 2K22-T1 model. Often cost double to purchase one. Many of these armored remain in service with the New Sovietski and a few are in the hands of Russian Warlords or mercenaries.
- Two 30-mm 2A38M Automatic Cannons: Mounted in the turret as the main guns and the turret can rotate 360 degrees and can elevate up to 87 degrees and depress down 10 degrees. One is mounted on either side. Cannon can be used against low flying aircraft as well as other ground vehicles. Linked to fire control radar. The standard ammunition has been replaced by high density ramjet ammunition which inflicts heavy damage and enables the 2K22-T1 to hold its own against other armored vehicle's weapons.
- 9M113-M1 Medium Range Missile Tubes (8): Four are on either side of the turret for a total of eight missiles. These missile launchers fires volleys of medium range missiles, principally anti-aircraft fragmentation. They can be used against a wide variety of targets although mostly designed for air defense roles. Faster SAM type air defense missiles are most commonly used.
- Multi-Option "Shtora-8" Jammers (2): These are multi-purpose jamming devices designed to stop incoming missiles and confuse an enemy targeting the 2K22-T.
Maximum Effective Range: 9,842.5 feet (3,000 meters / 3 kilometers) against aircraft and 13,123.4 (4000 meters / 4 kilometers) against ground targets.
Mega Damage: 1D6x10 for a short burst of ten round burst, 2D6x10 for a long burst of twenty round burst, and 4D6x10 for both cannons firing a forty round burst. Weapons inflicts 3D6 for a single 30 mm round.
Rate of Fire: Equal to the combined hand to hand attacks of the gunner (usually 4 or 5).
Payload: 1,904 rounds (190 short bursts, 85 long bursts, and 42 two cannon bursts)
Note: SAM style missiles are missiles that sacrifice payload for higher speeds, see Chris Curtis' modified missile table for specifics.
Maximum Effective Range: As per medium range missile type (See revised bomb and missile tables for details - SAM style missiles normally.)
Mega Damage: As per medium range missile type (See revised bomb and missile tables for details - SAM style missiles normally.)
Rate of Fire: The launcher can fire a volley of one to four missiles per volley
Payload: 4 medium range missiles each side for 8 Medium Range missiles total. No reloads carried.
Effect: Each firing launches two Chaff rockets, two Flare rockets, and the tank begins emitting a large cloud of smoke, both standard and Anti-Laser Prismatic aerosol ; The Chaff rockets detonate and spread Chaff over the area, the flare rockets floating down by parachute; Effects last for one minute (4 Melee rounds.) The Chaff rockets have a 20% chance of interfering with the course of enemy missiles each (40%, total) that are radar guided so that they miss the tank. The flares have the same percentages, except with IR-guided missiles. The Anti-Laser prismatic aerosol reduces damage by half for any laser beam striking the tank (With the exception of X-ray lasers but not variable frequency lasers; X-Ray lasers suffer no damage modifiers, and variable frequency lasers simply cannot compensate for the variables involved), and adds a +4 difficulty to targeting the tank with a laser guidance system or visually.
Rate of Fire: Usually once every four melee rounds; Effects are not cumulative.
Range: Around tank only; Rough distance of 80 ft (24 m) around tank.
Payload: Sufficient for ten firings; One of each type of jamming option from each side of the vehicle.
- 57E6 Anti-Aircraft Radar: Range of 23.6 miles (38 km); Capable of tracking up to 16 targets simultaneously, this radar serves to guide the top weapon mount in engaging aircraft (+2 to targeting aircraft and missiles with the top weapon mount), and providing early warning of incoming aircraft and missile attacks; The radar can be programmed to shut off immediately if it detects an aircraft firing a missile, incase the missile is a radar-homing HARM type. The radar is highly ineffective against ground targets (-60% to sensor rolls.) Folds when not in use. Replaced by more powerful robot radars in many cases.
- Full Infrared viewing mode: range of 2 miles (3.2 km), with IR searchlight (+3 to detecting targets with IR when in use, however, +3 to detecting the 2K22-T with IR equipment when in use, as well.)
- Fire Control Links: Allows vehicle to share fire control data with other combat vehicles. Radar data and other information can be shared between vehicles for missiles. Up to six of these vehicles can be linked in this manner and can receive commands from a command and control vehicles as well as AWACs type aircraft.
- The armored vehicle is fully NBC (Nuclear, Biological, Chemical) protected,
and all equipment is hardened against EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse).
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Initial Concepts by Marina O'Leary (LusankyaN@aol.com ).
Writeup by Kitsune (E-Mail Kitsune).
Copyright © 2009, Kitsune. All rights reserved.